Wind velocity is a three-dimensional vectoral quantity with short scale random variations in time and space which take place in a larger scale organized flux. For most hydrometeorological applications, wind is considered two-dimensional and described by speed and direction. When the wind is characterized by sudden steep variations, it is called gust.
Anemometers are sensors that measure wind speed and wind gust. The wind forces the rotor to rotate at a speed proportional to the wind speed. This rotation is sensed using a balanced system of magnets and a reed - switch.
Windvanes incorporate a precision wire-wound potentiometer as a shaft angle transducer, enabling wind direction sensed to be accurately determined when connected to suitable measuring equipment, such as a data logger. The potentiometer has the lowest possible torque consistent with long life and reliability, the small gap at north being filled with an insulating material to ensure smooth operation over the full 360°.
Wind measurements are required for analysis and forecasts of weather conditions, for climate studies, for estimations on the possibility of extreme weather events and for energy studies.
Wind velocity - direction (anemometer - windvane)